Recognizing emerald ash borers and signs of infestation:
* Small, one-half inch metallic green beetles seen from late May to mid-August.
* Larvae are a creamy white, up to 1.5 inches long, with a nested bells look to their body segments.
* One-eighth inch D shaped exit holes in ash tree bark.
* S-shaped tunnels under the bark.
* Ash trees with thin or dead branches.
* Splitting bark.
* Lots of woodpecker activity.
To prevent the spread of invasive species, New York has firewood restrictions in place:
* Only heat-treated firewood may be imported into New York.
* Within the state, firewood, unless heat treated, may not be transported more than 50 miles.
* Firewood being transported must be labeled with its source.
Other invasive species, diseases
* Chestnut blight. A fungus that killed many chestnut trees in the early 20th century.
* European gypsy moth. First released in the late 19th century, these moths eat hundreds of varieties of trees and shrubs.
* Dutch elm disease. A fungus, spread by beetles, that has killed many elm trees.
* Beech bark disease. Two fungi that invade the bark of American beeches that have been already been attacked by the beech scale, an insect. The combination started killing trees in North America in the 1930s.
* Asian longhorned beetles. Arrived in the U.S. in 1996 and bores into many hardwood species.
* Hemlock wooly adelgids. This insect arrived in the U.S. in the mid-1950s and kills hemlock trees.
* Pine shoot beetles. Arrived from Europe in 1992 and stunt the growth of pine trees by attacking new shoots.
* Sirex woodwasps. These insects bore into pine trees, secreting a toxic mucus and symbiotic fungus, which weaken or kill trees.
* Asian gypsy moth. Arrived in North American in 1991 and poses the risk of serious defoliation.
Sources: New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse, USDA
Visiit the New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse at www.nyis.info